Cardiovascular/Circulatory system

The Effects of Tai Chi on Cardiovascular Risk in Women

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA


Outcomes: Purpose – This study examined the effects of tai chi (TC) on biobehavioral factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women.

Conclusion – This study contributes important insights into the potential benefits and mechanisms of TC and, with further research, may ultimately lead to effective strategies for reducing CVD risk in women earlier in the CVD trajectory.

Tai Chi Is a Promising Exercise Option for Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Declining Cardiac Rehabilitation.

The Miriam Hospital and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA


Outcomes: Background – More than 60% of patients decline participation in cardiac rehabilitation after a myocardial infarction. Options to improve physical activity (PA) and other risk factors in these high‐risk individuals are limited. We conducted a phase 2 randomized controlled trial to determine feasibility, safety, acceptability, and estimates of effect of tai chi on PA, fitness, weight, and quality of life.

Conclusions -In this community sample of patients with coronary heart disease declining enrollment in cardiac rehabilitation, a 6‐month tai chi program was safe and improved PA, weight, and quality of life compared with a 3‐month intervention. Tai chi could be an effective option to improve PA in this high‐risk population.

The beneficial effects of Tai Chi exercise on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in elderly women with rheumatoid arthritis

College of Medicine, Hayang University, Guri, Kyeonggi-do 11923, Republic of Korea and Division of cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sung-Ae Hospital, Yongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 07354, Republic of Korea


Outcomes: Background – Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been known to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on CVD risk in elderly women with RA.

Conclusion – Tai Chi exercise improved endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in elderly women with RA, suggesting that it can be a useful behavioral strategy for CVD prevention in patients with RA.

Tai Chi Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Conditions and Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA,USA and Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA,USA and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA


Outcomes: Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria: 9 RCT, 14 non-randomized studies (NRS), and 6 observational trials (OBS). Three studies examined subjects with coronary heart disease, 5 in heart failure, and 10 in heterogeneous populations that included those with CVD. Eleven studies examined subjects with CVRF (hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism). Study duration ranged from 8 weeks to 3 years. Most studies included <100 subjects (range 5–207). Six of nine RCTs were of adequate quality (Jadad ≥3). Most studies report improvements with tai chi, including blood pressure reductions and increases in exercise capacity. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that tai chi exercise may be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for some patients with CVD and CVRF. Further research is needed.

Changes in hemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

Department of Cardiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK


Outcomes: In conclusion, this study shows that regular Tai  Chi  or  aerobic  exercise  in the  recovery period  from  acute  myocardial  infarction  is associated  with  falls  in  blood  pressure.  Tai Chi  may  be  a  useful  alternative  to  formal aerobic exercise as part of a cardiac rehabilitate programme, and was readily accepted by our patients.

Effects of tai chi mind-body movement therapy on functional status and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA


Outcomes: Tai chi may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances quality of life and functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure who are already receiving standard medical therapy.

An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi Chuan and Chi Kung training in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a randomized controlled pilot study

Department Cardiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK


Outcomes: In patients with chronic heart failure, 16 weeks of Tai Chi training was safe, with no adverse exercise related problems. It was enjoyed by all taking part and led to significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life.

Tai Chi Exercise in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure -A Randomized Clinical Trial

Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline, MA, USA


Outcomes: Tai chi exercise may improve quality of life, mood, and exercise self-efficacy in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF).

Tai Chi Enhances the Effects of Endurance Training in the Rehabilitation of Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, Centre for Clinical and Basic Research, IRCCS San Raffaele, Roma, Italy


Outcomes: The association of Tai Chi and endurance training (ET) improves exercise tolerance and quality of life (QOL) of patients with Chronic heart failure (CHF) more efficiently than just using ET.

Tai Chi Chuan improves functional capacity after myocardial infarction: A randomized clinical trial

Exercise Cardiology Research Group (CardioEx), Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil


Outcomes: Tai Chi Chuan practice was associated with an increase in Vo2 peak in patients with a recent MI and may constitute an effective form of cardiac rehabilitation in this patient population.

The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial

Institute of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan


Outcomes: This study shows that under well-designed conditions, Tai Chi exercise training could decrease blood pressure and results in favorable lipid profile changes and improve subjects’ anxiety status. Therefore, Tai Chi could be used as an alternative modality in treating patients with mild hypertension, with a promising economic effect.

The effects of aerobic exercise and T’ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: results of a randomized trial

Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Outcomes: Programs of moderate intensity aerobic exercise and light exercise may have similar effects on blood pressure in previously sedentary older individuals. If additional trials confirm these results, promoting light intensity activity could have substantial public health benefits as a means to reduce blood pressure in older aged persons.